• See all images (-2)

    Usul al-Fiqh: Methodology of Islamic Jurisprudence

    by Recep Dogan
    READ ON
    • PAPERBACK : 2014-11-15 • 362 Pages • 6 x 9 inches inches • ISBN 9781597843492
    • CATEGORIES Interfaith Dialogue, Backlist, Forthcoming
    • PRICE : $18.50
    • Buy This Book
    DESCRIPTION

    This book deals with the sources of Islamic jurisprudence and their importance in deducing the religious rulings. It covers the concept of ijtihād (independent reasoning), its conditions and application and illustrates why it is a practice for experts rather than laymen. It also explains the differences in the levels of expertise of the mujtahids. In fact, there are seven distinct classifications of mujtahid. The book also covers the communication of God as Lawgiver with regard to the conduct of liable persons. It details the difference in probative value of communication based on the extent to which it binds an individual be it absolutely binding, a recommendation or mere permissibility. The reader will be able to understand the difference between fiqh (law) and Usūl al-Fiqh (methodology of law). Fiqh is the law itself whereas Usūl al-Fiqh is the methodology utilized to extract the law. The relationship between the two disciplines resembles that of the rules of grammar to a language, or of logic to philosophy. Usūl al-Fiqh in this sense provides the standard criteria for the correct deduction of the rulings of fiqh from the sources of Shari’ah (the Qur’an and Sunnah).

    Extra Contents
    Transliteration Table...........................................................................................................................................................xi
    Preface.....................................................................................................................................................................................xiii
    Chapter One
    Introduction to Uṣūl al-Fiqh
    The Literal Meaning of Fiqh.........................................................................................................................................3
    The Definition of Uṣūl al-Fiqh.....................................................................................................................................6
    The Differences between Mujtahid and Faqīh.....................................................................................................9
    The Development of Uṣūl al-Fiqh...........................................................................................................................11
    The First Work in the Field of Uṣūl al-Fiqh........................................................................................................13
    The Methodology of Mutakallimīn...................................................................................................................15
    The Methodology of Ḫanafī ...............................................................................................................................16
    The Books Written according to the Methodology of Mutakallimīn:...............................................20
    The Books Written according to the Methodology of Ḫanafī:.............................................................20
    The Sources of Islamic Rulings................................................................................................................................21
    Evidences Agreed Upon (Sources)..................................................................................................................21
    The Disputed Evidences.......................................................................................................................................23
    General Information about the Evidences..........................................................................................................23
    Chapter Two
    Kitāb (The Qur’an)
    Definition of the Kitāb.................................................................................................................................................31
    The Specifications of the Kitāb (The Qur’an) ...................................................................................................34
    The General Features of the Qur’an......................................................................................................................37
    The Dispute over Personal Copies of the Qur’an.............................................................................................40
    The Stages of Revelation............................................................................................................................................41
    The Wisdom behind the Gradual Revelation of the Qur’an..................................................................43
    Transmission of the Qur’an.......................................................................................................................................44
    The Methodology in the Collection of ‘Uthman.........................................................................................48
    Qur’anic Script..........................................................................................................................................................50
    The Value of the Qur’an in Islamic Jurisprudence..........................................................................................54
    Characteristics of the Qur’an Regarding Islamic Rulings............................................................................55
    The Style of the Qur’an in Aḫkām Shar’iyya (Legal Rules) .........................................................................60
    Ta’līl (Causation) in the Qur’an...............................................................................................................................62
    I’jāz (Inimitability) of the Qur’an...........................................................................................................................64
    Arguments for the Divine Authorship of the Qur’an...............................................................................68
    Asbāb an-Nuzūl (The Occasions of the Revelations)......................................................................................72
    The Benefits of Knowing the Asbāb an-Nuzūl.............................................................................................72
    Chapter Three
    Sunnah
    Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................................79
    Proof-Value of Sunnah in Legislation...................................................................................................................83
    The Verbal Sunnah........................................................................................................................................................85
    The Practical Sunnah...................................................................................................................................................86
    The Sunnah Based on His Approval......................................................................................................................86
    The Role of Sunnah in Legislation..........................................................................................................................88
    The Prophet as a Messenger of God................................................................................................................91
    The Prophet as a Ruler.........................................................................................................................................91
    The Prophet as a Judge.........................................................................................................................................91
    The Differences between the Qur’an and Sunnah..........................................................................................92
    Forgery in the Hadith..................................................................................................................................................94
    Classification of Hadith in regard to Chain of Transmission.....................................................................96
    Muttasil (The Continuous) Hadith...................................................................................................................97
    Ghayr Muttasil (The Discontinued) Hadith...............................................................................................103
    Saḫīḫ, Ḫasan and Da’īf..............................................................................................................................................104
    Chapter Four
    Ijma’ (General Consensus)
    Introduction..................................................................................................................................................................109
    The Types of Ijma’......................................................................................................................................................111
    The Proof Value of Ijma’..........................................................................................................................................112
    The Arguments of the Scholars Who do not Accept Ijma’ Evidence..............................................115
    Feasibility of Ijma’................................................................................................................................................118
    Sanad (Basis) of Ijma’.........................................................................................................................................122
    Transmission of Ijma’.........................................................................................................................................125
    Chapter Five
    Qiyas (Analogy)
    Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................129
    The Proof Value of Qiyāṣ ........................................................................................................................................133
    The Arguments of the Majority......................................................................................................................134
    The Arguments against Qiyāṣ ........................................................................................................................138
    The Conditions of Qiyāṣ ..........................................................................................................................................140
    Determining the ‘Illah...............................................................................................................................................145
    The Categories of a Proper Attribute................................................................................................................148
    Takhrīj al-Manāt.........................................................................................................................................................149
    Tanqīh al-Manāt..........................................................................................................................................................150
    Taḫqīq al-Manāt..........................................................................................................................................................151
    Chapter Six
    Istiḫsān (Juristic Preference), Qawli Saḫābah (The Statement of the Companions)
    and Revealed Law Preceding the Shari’ah of Islam
    Istiḫsān (Juristic Preference).................................................................................................................................155
    Introduction to Istiḫsān (Jurist’s Preference)..........................................................................................155
    The Terminological Meanings of Qiyāṣ .....................................................................................................156
    The Terminological Meanings of Asl............................................................................................................157
    The Reason for the Dispute over Istiḫsān..................................................................................................158
    The Definition of Istiḫsān..................................................................................................................................159
    The Different Types of Istiḫsān......................................................................................................................161
    Istiḫsān because of Naṣṣ..............................................................................................................................162
    Istiḫsān because of Ijma’.............................................................................................................................163
    Istiḫsān because of Necessity....................................................................................................................164
    Istiḫsān because of Khafī (Unclear) Qiyāṣ ..........................................................................................166
    Istiḫsān because of ‘Urf................................................................................................................................168
    Istiḫsān because of Maslaḫah ...................................................................................................................169
    The Proof Value of Istiḫsān .............................................................................................................................171
    Comparing Istiḫsān with Maslaḫah..............................................................................................................173
    Qawli Saḫābah (The Statement of the Companions)..................................................................................173
    Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................173
    The Proof Value of the Statement of the Companions.........................................................................174
    The Critique of These Two Views...........................................................................................................175
    Shar’u Man Qablanā (The Laws Preceding Islam).......................................................................................177
    Introduction............................................................................................................................................................177
    The Classifications of Previous Laws..........................................................................................................177
    Chapter Seven
    ‘Urf (Custom) and Maslaḫah Mursala (Consideration of Public Interest)
    ‘Urf (Custom)................................................................................................................................................................183
    Introduction............................................................................................................................................................183
    Proof Value of ‘Urf................................................................................................................................................185
    The Conditions for the Validity of ‘Urf........................................................................................................188
    Changes in the Rulings by Changing ‘Urf...................................................................................................189
    Maslaḫah Mursala (Considerations of Public Interest).............................................................................191
    Introduction............................................................................................................................................................191
    The Definition of Maslaḫah Mursala............................................................................................................194
    The Proof Value of Maslaḫah Mursala........................................................................................................195
    The Conditions for the Application of Maslaḫah Mursala .................................................................196
    The Arguments of the Proponents ........................................................................................................197
    The Arguments of the Opponents...........................................................................................................201
    Comparing Maslaḫah Mursala with Qiyāṣ and Istiḫsān ......................................................................204
    Chapter Eight
    Istiṣḫāb and Sadd Dharā’ī
    Istiṣḫāb (Presumption of Continuity)................................................................................................................209
    Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................209
    The Types of Istiṣḫāb..........................................................................................................................................211
    The Proof Value of Istiṣḫāb..............................................................................................................................213
    The Principles of Istiṣḫāb .................................................................................................................................213
    Sadd al-Dharā’ī (Blocking the Means)...............................................................................................................215
    Introduction............................................................................................................................................................215
    Proof Value of Sadd Dharā’ī.............................................................................................................................216
    The Classification of the Acts....................................................................................................................218
    Aḫkām Shar’ī (Value of Islamic Law).................................................................................................................220
    Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................220
    Ḫukm (The Law) and Its Types......................................................................................................................220
    The Pillars of Islamic Law................................................................................................................................225
    Ḫākim (The Lawgiver).................................................................................................................................225
    Maḫkūm Fīh (The Subject-Matter of the Law) .................................................................................226
    Maḫkūm ‘Alayh (The Addressee of the Law) ....................................................................................230
    Chapter Nine
    Aḫkām Shar’ī (Value of Islamic Law)
    Aḫkām Taklifiyya (Defining Law)........................................................................................................................235
    Wajib, Fard (The Obligatory)..........................................................................................................................235
    Mandub (Recommended).................................................................................................................................240
    Haram (Prohibited).............................................................................................................................................242
    Makruh (Disliked)................................................................................................................................................244
    Mubah (Permissible)...........................................................................................................................................247
    Aḫkām Wad’iyya (Declaratory Law)...................................................................................................................248
    Sabab (a Cause).....................................................................................................................................................248
    Rukun (a Pillar).....................................................................................................................................................251
    Shart (a Condition) .............................................................................................................................................251
    Māni’ (an Obstacle)..............................................................................................................................................252
    Saḫīḫ (Valid), Bātil (Invalid) and Fāsid (Irregular).....................................................................................253
    ‘Aẕimah (Initial Rules) and Rukhṣah (Exemptions).....................................................................................255
    Chapter 10
    The Rules of Interpretation
    Introduction..................................................................................................................................................................261
    Ta’wil (Interpretation).............................................................................................................................................262
    Clear and Unclear Words........................................................................................................................................264
    Clear Words..................................................................................................................................................................264
    Ẕāhir (Manifest)....................................................................................................................................................264
    Naṣṣ (Evident) ......................................................................................................................................................265
    Mufassar (Explained) .........................................................................................................................................265
    Muhkam ...................................................................................................................................................................267
    Unclear Words.............................................................................................................................................................268
    Khafī (Secret).........................................................................................................................................................268
    Mushkil (The Difficult).......................................................................................................................................269
    Mujmal (Brief)........................................................................................................................................................270
    Mutashābih (Complex).......................................................................................................................................271
    The ‘Āam (General) and the Khās (Specific)...................................................................................................273
    Mutlaq (The Absolute) and Muqayyad (The Qualified).............................................................................281
    Ḫaqiqī (The Literal) and Majāzī (The Metaphorical).................................................................................283
    The Mushtarak (The Homonym).........................................................................................................................286
    Chapter 11
    Command and Prohibition
    Introduction..................................................................................................................................................................291
    Amr (Command).........................................................................................................................................................292
    Nahy (Prohibitions)...................................................................................................................................................296
    Naskh (Abrogation)...................................................................................................................................................301
    Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................301
    Classification of Naskh.......................................................................................................................................307
    Difference between Naskh (Abrogation) and Takhsis (Specification)...........................................309
    Dalālah (Textual Implications)......................................................................................................................311
    Ibārah Naṣṣ (The Explicit Meaning).......................................................................................................311
    Ishārah Naṣṣ (The Alluded Meaning)....................................................................................................312
    Dalālah Naṣṣ (The Inferred Meaning)...................................................................................................313
    Iktizā Naṣṣ (The Required Meaning) ....................................................................................................314
    Chapter 12
    Ijtihād (Personal Reasoning)
    Introduction..................................................................................................................................................................319
    The Proof Value of Ijtihād.......................................................................................................................................321
    Conditions of Ijtihād..................................................................................................................................................323
    The Matter of Division in Ijtihād..........................................................................................................................326
    Truth and Fallacy of Ijtihād....................................................................................................................................328
    Restrictions on Ijtihād..............................................................................................................................................330
    The Classification of Mujtahids.............................................................................................................................332
    Taqlid (Imitation).......................................................................................................................................................335
    Ta’arud al-Adillah (The Conflicts of the Evidences)....................................................................................337
    Glossary.................................................................................................................................................................................343
    Bibliography........................................................................................................................................................................347