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    The Prophet Promised in World Scriptures

    by Ali Unal
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    • PAPERBACK : 2013-08-16 • 558 Pages • 6 x 9 inches • ISBN 9781597842716
    • CATEGORIES Interfaith Dialogue, Backlist, Forthcoming
    • PRICE : $22.95
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    DESCRIPTION

    by Ali Unal and Harun Gultekin

    The authors argue that numerous prophecies of the coming of the blessed Prophet are found in the New and Old Testaments, the Zoroastrian, Hindu and Buddhist Scriptures. He then closely examines these prophecies through a comparative and verse-by-verse analysis and explains the rationale for his conclusions.

    For readers who are not familiar with the Islamic view of Prophethood, the book first explains the essentials of Prophethood and the characteristics of Prophets, outlines the Divine purpose for sending Prophets, and finally introduces Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him.

    The author starts his analysis of world scriptures under five broad headings, starting with the Old Testament. Here he first examines the books of major Prophets starting from Adam, Noah, Abraham to Moses, David and Solomon. He then conveys the glad tidings made by other Prophets such as Daniel, Jonah and Zechariah, all proclaiming the arrival of Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him.

    He then examines the New Testament, the Zoroastrian, Buddhist and Hindu Scriptures respectively, emphasizing on the central notion that Prophet Muhammad is clearly and directly mentioned in all the World Scriptures as the final Prophet sent to humankind and the very person declared by all the Prophets from Adam to Jesus, peace be upon them all. This book will appeal to readers from all faiths and backgrounds that have an interest in major world religions and their sacred scriptures.

    INTRODUCTION

    PROPHETHOOD AND WHY MUHAMMAD WAS UNIVERSALLY PROMISED

    God Almighty has created every community of beings with a purpose and a guide or a leader. It is inconceivable that God Almighty, Who has given bees a queen, ants a leader, and birds and fish each a guide, would leave us without Prophets to guide us to spiritual, intellectual, and material perfection.

    Although we can find God Almighty by reflecting upon natural phenomena, we need a Prophet to learn why we were created, where we came from, where we are going, and how to worship our Creator properly. The ultimate purpose for the creation of human beings is that they know and worship God Almighty with all the dimensions of their existence. And thus, “belief in God is creation’s highest aim and most sublime result; humanity’s most exalted rank is knowledge of Him that is contained in this belief. The greatest happiness of humanity lies in love of God contained within knowledge of God. The purest joy of the human spirit and heart is the spiritual happiness and pleasure contained within the love of God. All true happiness, pure joy, and unclouded pleasures are contained within knowledge and love of God.” Thus, God sent Prophets to teach people the meaning of creation, leading them to knowledge of and belief in God and worship of Him. He also sent them to teach people the truth of things, to unveil the mysteries behind historical and natural events, and to inform us of our relationship, and that of Divine Scriptures, with the universe.

    Without Prophets, we could not have made any scientific progress. While those who adopt evolutionary approaches to explain historical events tend to attribute everything to chance and deterministic evolution, Prophets guided humanity in intellectual—and thus scientific—illumination. Thus, farmers traditionally accept Prophet Adam as their first master, tailors accept Prophet Enoch, shipmakers and sailors accept Prophet Noah, and clock makers accept Prophet Joseph. Also, the Prophets’ miracles marked the final points in scientific and technological advances, and urged people to accomplish them.

    Prophets guided people, through personal conduct and the heavenly religions and Scriptures they conveyed, to develop their inborn capacities and directed them toward the purpose of their creation. Had it not been for them, humanity (the fruit of the ‘tree of creation’) would have been left to decay. As humanity needs social justice as much as it needs private inner peace, Prophets taught the laws of life and established the rules for a perfect social life based on justice.

    Whenever people fell into darkness after a Prophet, God sent another one to enlighten them again. This continued until the coming of the Last Prophet. The reason for sending the Prophets Moses and Jesus required that Prophet Muhammad should be sent. As his message was for everyone, regardless of time or place, Prophethood ended with him.

    Due to certain sociological and historical facts, which require a lengthy explanation, Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was sent as “a mercy for all the worlds, all the creatures.” For this reason, Muslims believe in all of the Prophets and make no distinction among them:

    The Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and so do the believers; each one believes in God, and His angels, and His Books, and His Messengers: “We make no distinction between any of His Messengers (in believing in them).” And they say: “We have heard (the call to faith in God) and obeyed. Our Lord, grant us Your forgiveness, and to You is the homecoming.” (al-Baqara, 2:285)

    That is why Islam, revealed by God and conveyed to humanity by Prophet Muhammad, is universal and eternal.

    A Prophet inculcates the Creator’s grandeur in the minds and spirits of human beings. The Divinely revealed Religion he communicates requires regular worship, which enables people to continuously and increasingly feel the Creator’s grandeur and omnipresence. Worship directs thoughts and feelings to the Creator, which, in turn, lead to obedience to Him. Obedience to the Creator, Who is also the Supreme Author of the universal, magnificent order, secures the perfect public order in human life. This perfect public order is based on God’s Wisdom. The essence of God’s Wisdom is that nothing in the universe is purposeless and meaningless. The universal order, beauty, and harmony bear witness to this Wisdom. The Universally-promised Prophet

    The Qur’an says:

    And when God took compact with the Prophets (and people through them): “That I have given you a Book and Wisdom; then there will come to you a Messenger confirming what (of the Divine Revelations) you already possess—you shall certainly believe in him and you shall certainly help him.” So saying, He asked: “Have you affirmed this and agreed to take up My burden (that I lay upon you) in this matter?” They answered: “We have affirmed (it).” He said: “Then bear witness (you and your communities), and I will be with you among the witnesses.” (Al-‘Imran, 3:81)

    A covenant was taken from all peoples of the world through their respective Prophets, that when a Messenger (ar-rasul) who would confirm their truth and corroborate what (of the Divine Revelations) they already possessed came to them, they should believe in him and help him. In a general sense, a Prophet (an-nabiyy) is one who receives Revelation from God and has the duty of communicating it to people. In this sense, Messengership (ar-Risala) is included in the meaning of Prophethood (an- Nubuwwa). In a more particular sense, a Prophet is one who receives Divine Revelation, and follows the Book and the Law that the Messenger prior to him brought, or follows a contemporary Messenger, without himself having received a separate Book. What is meant by the Book in the verse must be the Book, or the part of it, to which a Prophet becomes heir. Every Messenger is also a Prophet, but not vice versa.

    Prior to Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, in former communities, there used to be several Prophets at the same time, xx The Prophet Promised in World Scriptures Introduction xxi even in the same place. When circumstances required a Messenger to come with a new Book, or Law, or some amendment, God sent one. Since Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, there has been no need for a new Messenger and Book because the Qur’an has been preserved intact and meticulous, pure scholars and great spiritual masters have carried on the mission of the Prophets, without, of course, receiving Revelation, and great “revivers,” who have combined both scholarship and spiritual mastery, have become heirs to the mission of Messengership. The saying, “The scholars of my community are like the Prophets of the Children of Israel,” attributed to Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, expresses this reality. That is, great Muslim scholars and spiritual masters have done what the previous Prophets and Messengers did, with the exception that there is no longer any need for a new Book to be sent and that they do not receive Revelation. No scholar or spiritual master, however great and virtuous he or she may be, can be on the same level as a Prophet in virtue.

    The Qur’anic verse whose translation has been given above, also clearly indicates that since Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is the final Prophet and Messenger and therefore heir to all the previous Prophets (and Messengers) as he was sent to all peoples with a universal Message, one who confirmed all the previous Revelations, Prophets and Messengers as the two of the pillars of belief in his Message, and declared the absolute freedom of all the previous Prophets and Messengers from the blames that their peoples charged on them later, God had taken covenant from all the previous Prophets (and Messengers) and their peoples through their agency that they would give the glad tidings of his advent and confirm him when he appeared. This covenant was in all the previous Divine Scriptures.

    The condition in which the previous sacred Scriptures of the world are found today is not pleasing. No Scripture of any religion was found in its original form and pristine purity at the time of the holy Prophet’s advent, nor is one found today. Such Books, therefore, cannot prove the truth of the Religion, nay, their own Prophets stand in need of vindication. So many suspicions and misgivings have sprung up about the figures of Zoroaster, Buddha, Abraham, Krishna and Christ that many look upon them as mere fictitious persons. So many differences are found regarding the name, place, and period of the ancient Prophets that their very existence is being doubted. Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, has, thus, put all the Prophets under obligation by testifying to their truth. Indeed he had done for them what their own present-day Books or followers could not do. In this way, by the collective evidence of them all, he has also established and evinced the truth of the Religion.

    Although the previous Divine Scriptures have suffered alterations and interpolations during history, in the present interpolated form of the Old Testament, for example, scores of prophecies about the holy Prophet can be found. The Divine purpose must have preserved these so that the great World Prophet or the universal Prophet, who is the testifier of all foregoing Prophets and Scriptures, may also have corresponding confirmation of his truthfulness from the lips of those Prophets. Just as the Divine Being is a common factor and central point among all the nations of the world on which the unity of the various world religions can be founded, likewise among the world Prophets, the personality of Prophet Muhammad occupies a position in which the diverse religions of the world find a common converging point. Every great Prophet of the world has foretold his advent and exhorted his followers to rally around this “mercy for all the nations.” There may be numerous points of difference among the various religions of the world, but they are all agreed on the advent of this World Teacher, who has been mentioned by various epithets by various Prophets, such as “the Lord with ten thousand saints” by Enoch, Moses and the Rishis of the Vedas, as “the saviour of the barque” in time of the Flood by Noah, as “a Prophet like himself” by Moses, as “a beloved” by David, as “Mahamaddim” by Solomon and as “Paraclete” by Jesus.4

    The words of the present Torah, Gospels, and Psalms do not have the Qur’an’s miraculous perfection. Moreover, many alien terms and ideas have entered them because the translations became removed from the original texts. Furthermore, the sayings and mistakes, whether intentional or not, of their many interpreters have been confused with the original verses, and the distortions of ignorant people and various enemies have been incorporated. However even now, after so many alterations, the celebrated nineteenth–century Ottoman scholar Allama Husayn Jisri still could extract from them many pieces of evidence concerning Muhammad’s Prophethood, which he included in his Risala al-Hamidiya.

    Many Jewish and Christian scholars acknowledge that Muhammad’s characteristics are recorded in their Scriptures. In his own time, the famous Roman emperor Heraclius and the high priest with him admitted: “I agree that Jesus predicted Muhammad’s advent.” Another Roman ruler named Muqawqis, the governor of Egypt, and such well-known Jewish scholars as Ibn Suriya, Ibn Akhtab and his brother Ka‘b ibn Asad, and Zubayr ibn Batiya, although remaining non-Muslims, admitted: “Our books mention him and his qualities.”

    On the other hand, many famous Jewish scholars and Christian monks have converted after seeing that Muhammad had the attributes mentioned in their Scriptures concerning the Last Prophet. They silenced some of their former co-religionist scholars by showing them the references in the Torah and the Gospels. Among them were the famous ‘Abdullah ibn Salam, Wahb ibn Munabbih, Ibn Bunyamin, Mukhayriq, Ka‘b al- Akhbar Abu Yasir, Shamul, and Asid and Tha‘laba (the two sons of Sa‘ya). Shamul lived during the reign of Tubba, ruler of Yemen, and both believed in Muhammad’s Prophethood even though his birth was still some time in the future.

    Ibn Hayaban, a Jewish scholar, once visited the Bani Nadir tribe in Madina before the proclamation of Muhammad’s Prophethood. He told them: “The emergence of a Prophet is close, and he will emigrate here.” Ibn Hayaban died there. Later, when that tribe fought God’s Messenger, Asid and Tha‘laba publicly called out to their tribe: “By God, he is the one whose coming was promised by Ibn Hayaban.” But they ignored the call, and so earned what they earned.

    Some Nestorians in Abyssinia as well as Negus (the Abyssinian ruler) embraced Islam together after they found the Prophet described in their Scripture.9 The famous Christian scholar Daghatr also found the Prophet described in the Christians’ books and accepted Islam. When he openly declared his conversion to the Byzantines, he was martyred.

    A few other examples of such conversions are Harith ibn Abi Shumar al-Ghassani (a Christian leader), Ibn Natur and al-Jarud (prominent religious leaders of Damascus), the ruler of Ilia (in present-day Greece) and Heraclius (Emperor of Byzantium). Heraclius concealed his conversion for the sake of the worldly kingdom. Salman al-Farisi, a Christian, set out to search for the Prophet after hearing his description. He found him in Madina and became a Muslim.

    In this book we have tried to introduce Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, with some aspects of his character and Prophethood. However, much of the study has been assigned to his being promised in the previous Scriptures. With a meticulous study Maulana Abdul-Haq Vidyarthi (1888–1977), who was an Indian scholar of Hebrew, Sanskrit, and other ancient languages, and a writer and researcher on Islam and comparative religion, in his book Muhammad in World Scriptures, brought to light prophecies from all major world Scriptures relating to the coming of Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings. In addition, Allama Husayn Jisri (1845–1909), an Ottoman scholar, also found in the Bible numerous pieces of evidence concerning Muhammad’s Prophethood and included them in his Risala al-Hamidiya. In this humble study of us, we have revised this important subject both based on such studies and in light of new researches and discussions.

    Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is the pride of humanity. For the past fourteen centuries, hundreds and thousands of Muslim thinkers, philosophers, scientists, statesmen, and scholars, each a radiant star in the intellectual world of humanity, have stood behind him in respect and admiration and taken pride in belonging to his community, while a further thousand people from among the non-Muslims have studied his unparalleled personality, character and achievement. It is enough to appreciate and understand his greatness that even after so many attacks on him and his Religion, and setbacks of his Community, we still hear the words “I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of God” from minarets five times a day together with the proclamation of the absolute Oneness of God. We hope by the grace of God Almighty that this humble study can be a contribution to the cognizance of him.

    — Writers

    TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction: Prophethood and Why Muhammad Was Universally Promised xvii
    The Universally-Promised Prophet xix

    Chapter 1: Introducing Prophet Muhammad 1

    The Dark Period of Ignorance 3
    Prophet Muhammad’s Life before His Prophethood 5
    What Was His Message? 7
    Prophet Muhammad’s Life during His Prophethood 9

    Chapter 2: Divine Purposes for Sending the Prophets 17

    To Illuminate Humanity’s Way 19
    To Guide People to the Service of God 19
    To Teach People God’s Laws 20
    To Be Examples 21
    To Establish Balance 21
    To Be God’s Witnesses 22
    Three Cardinal Aspects of the Prophetic Mission 23

    Chapter 3: Characteristics of the Prophets and Essentials of Prophethood 27

    Prophethood Is Distinguished by Divine Revelation 29
    Total Dependence on Revelation and Submission to God 30
    Prophets Were Specially Brought up by God 32
    Utmost Truthfulness 32
    Trustworthiness 34
    Complete Sincerity 38
    Calling People Wisely and with Kindness and Asking for No Wages 39
    Highest Caliber of Intellect 42
    Infallibility or Sinlessness 45
    No Bodily or Mental Defects 46

    Chapter 4: Prophet Muhammad’s Unparalleled Character and Achievement 47

    Chapter 5: The Prophet Promised in World Scriptures 63

    Prophecies in the Old Testament 67
    Prophecies in the Book of Adam 67
    The Prophet Who Will Crush Satan’s Head 67
    The Prophecy of Prophet Idris or Enoch 70
    The Lord’s Coming with Ten Thousands of His Holy Ones 70
    Prophet Noah’s Prophecy 72
    God’s Bow in the Cloud or God’s Appearing in the Cloud upon the Mercy-Seat 72
    Prophet Abraham’s Prophecy 76
    The Prophet and the Ever-Multiplying Great Nation Having the Best Claim to Relationship with Abraham 76
    Prophets Joseph and Jacob’s Prophecy 83
    The Scepter of Joseph and Shiloh 83
    Prophet Moses’ Prophecies 88
    A Prophet Like Moses From Among the Brethren of the Israelites 88
    “That Prophet” Expected by the Israelites 89
    The Lord’s Shining forth from Mount Paran 90
    The Prayer of Prophets Abraham and Ishmael 92
    …He Came with the Ten Thousands of Holy Ones 92
    ...At His Right Hand Was a Fiery Law for Them 93
    The Prophecy of Prophet Job 94
    Behemoth and Leviathan or the Anti-Christ and Sufyan 95
    The Holy Prophet in the Psalms of David 99
    The Prophet Nearest to the Lord 100
    The Prophet Who Comes in the Name of the Lord 100
    God’s Pure Words Preserved Intact 100
    The Headstone of the Building of Prophethood 101
    David’s Detailed Description of the Holy Prophet 102
    Another Description of the Prophet and Islamic Morality 103
    The Righteous to Be Upheld by the Lord and Who Shall Inherit the Land 105
    The Generation to Come to Praise the Lord 108
    Blessed Are Those in the Lord’s House in Makka 108
    Prophet Solomon’s Prophecies 110
    Mahamaddim: the Praised One Who Combines All Virtues in Himself 111
    ...His Mouth Is Most Sweet: A Reference to the Holy Qur’an 113
    The Prophet to Be from among Solomon’s Cousins— the Ishmaelites—and from a Neighboring Country—Arabia 115
    “O Daughters of the House of Peace and Safety!” 116
    The Yerushalim Which Is a House of Peace and Safety 117
    The Beloved One Who Is White and Ruddy, the Chiefest among Ten Thousand 118
    Prophecies of Isaiah 119
    Wonderful Counselor, Mighty Master, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace 119
    Consultation or an Advisory System of Government 123
    The Prophet Whose Rule on David’s Throne Will Continue Forever 124
    Isaiah’s Second Prophecy: Immanuel 125
    Mighty ‘God’ and ‘Eternal Father’ 125
    With Whom Is God Eternally? 126
    Isaiah’s Third Prophecy: a Rod out of the Stem of Jesse 127
    Jesse Is the Contracted Form of Ishmael 129
    The Signs in the Prophecy Are Concerned with the Holy Prophet 130
    Isaiah’s Fourth Prophecy: An Ensign of the Peoples, Including the Israelites, Which the Nations Shall Seek 131
    Isaiah’s Fifth Prophecy: the Eradication of the Worship of Idols from Babylon (Iraq) 134
    Isaiah’s Sixth Prophecy: the Oracle Concerning Arabia 135
    The Oracle Concerning Arabia 135
    Banu Aws and Banu Khadraj, Inhabitants of Madina 135
    The Emigration of the Holy Prophet and His Makkan Companions to Madina 137
    The Conditions of the Emigrants 138
    Within a Year, According to the Years of a Hireling, All the Glory of Kedar Shall Fail 138
    Another Prophecy of Isaiah Containing Many Clear Signs for the Holy Prophet 140
    The Prophet’s Exceptional Servanthood to God 140
    He Will Bring Justice to the Gentiles 141
    He Will Act by the Most Sublime Pattern of Conduct 141
    The Promised One Shall Not Break a Bruised Reed, Nor Quench a Dimly Burning Wick 142
    He Would Bring Justice to the Earth and Almost All the World Would Look forward to His Law 144
    Eighth Prophecy of Isaiah: a New Song and Praise of God from the Ends of the Earth 145
    The Inhabitants of Sela‘ Singing for Joy 146
    Isaiah’s Ninth Prophecy: the Mountain of the Lord’s House Shall Be Established in the Top of Mountains 149
    Established in the Top of the Mountains, and Shall Be Exalted above the Hills; and All Nations Shall Flow to It 150
    And Many People Shall Go and Say, Come You, and Let Us Go up to the Mountain of the Lord, to the House of the God of Jacob 151
    ...And He Will Teach Us of His Ways, and We Will Walk in His Paths 152
    into Pruning Hooks: Nation Shall Not Lift up Sword against Nation, Neither Shall They Learn War Any More 152
    O House of Jacob, Come You, and Let Us Walk in the Light of the Lord!.... 152 152
    O House of Jacob, Come You, and Let Us Walk in the Light of the Lord!.... 152 The House of the God of Jacob 153
    Will Walk in His Paths: For out of Zion Shall Go forth the Law, and the Word of the Lord from Jerusalem 154
    Isaiah’s Tenth Prophecy: A Precious Cornerstone, a Sure Foundation by Which God Will Make Justice the Line 155
    God Will Lay a Foundation in Zion 155
    the Edifice Which He Wills to Be Built. This Edifice Will Be Higher than All the Others Similar to It 156
    The Foundation Will Have a Stone, Which Will Be the Headstone, Precious Cornerstone of the Edifice to Be Built 156
    The Stone Will Not Be a Novel, Completely New One; It Will Be a Tested Stone 156
    Justice and Righteousness Will Be the Most Distinguishing Marks of This Stone 157
    Will Be Overflowed and Swept away by the Showers of Truth and Blows Coming from Heaven 158
    Eleventh Prophecy of Isaiah: the Promised Zion and a Complete Renewal or Revival 160
    Isaiah’s Twelfth Prophecy Clear about the Holy Prophet and the Qur’an.... 161 161
    Isaiah’s Twelfth Prophecy Clear about the Holy Prophet and the Qur’an.... 161 The Qur’an Will Be Revealed in Parts within a Certain Length of Time 163
    The Language of the Qur’an Will Be Arabic 163
    That Book Will Redeem and Refresh the People 164
    Thirteenth Prophecy of Isaiah: a New Book Which Will Contain All the Truths in the Revelations Prior to It 164
    Fourteenth Prophecy of Isaiah: the Straight Highway of the Lord in Arabia 167
    Arabia in Bible Dictionaries 167
    The Straight Highway 168
    He Will Make Powerful the Weak, Oppressed and Humble, and Make Low the Haughty, Oppressive and Proud 169
    The Promised Prophet Will Be Mightier than John the Baptist 171
    Isaiah’s Fifteenth Prophecy: the Promised One Will Come with Might, Subdue His Foes, and Lead His Followers Gently 172
    Sixteenth Prophecy of Isaiah: a Way in the Wilderness, and Rivers in the Desert 174
    Something Unprecedented in the World History, Some Unheard of and Wonderful Event, That Shall Far Surpass All That God Formerly Did.... 175 175
    Isaiah’s Seventeenth Prophecy: a New Law to Remain Forever and Eternal Salvation and Righteousness 177
    Isaiah’s Eighteenth Prophecy: God’s Eternal Mercy and the Songs of the Success of Islam 179
    Isaiah’s Nineteenth Prophecy: Everlasting Covenant; a Witness to the Peoples, and a Leader and Commander 182
    Twentieth Prophecy of Isaiah: God’s House Shall Be a House of Prayer for All Peoples 185
    Isaiah’s Twenty-First Prophecy, Which Is Full of Signs Concerned with Arabia and Prophet Muhammad 186
    A Foundational Change in the Entire Arabia 187
    The Dark Period of Jahiliyya 188
    Nations Have Come to Islam’s Light, and Kings to the Brightness of Its Rising 189
    With the Light of Islam, Minds, Souls, and Hearts Have Been Enlightened and Purified 189
    Sons and Daughters from All over the World Running to Islam and the Ka‘ba Carried in Its Affectionate Arms 191
    All of the Arabs, Including the Ishmaelites, Will Become Muslims and Hasten to the Ka‘ba 191
    The Ka‘ba Shall Remain Open at All Times 193
    Islam Has Opened a Door of Salvation and Excellency for the Jews 193
    Everlasting Deliverance from the Darkness of Polytheism 195
    Isaiah’s Twenty-Second Prophecy: a New Name and Eternal Protection 196
    Other Prophecies of Isaiah 199
    God Will Not Destroy All of the Israelites for His Servant’s Sake 200
    While Israel Turns to a ‘Desert’, Arabia Will Flourish with Rains of Blessing..... 202 202
    While Israel Turns to a ‘Desert’, Arabia Will Flourish with Rains of Blessing..... 202 A Great Transformation in Arabia and Certain Other Gentile Lands 203
    Jeremiah’s Prophecies 204
    “The Lying Pen of the Scribes Handling the Law Falsely” 204
    First Prophecy of Jeremiah: Arabian’s Changing Their False Gods with the True, One God 205
    Jeremiah’s Second Prophecy: New Jerusalem, Which Will Be Called ‘the Throne of the Lord’ 207
    The House of Judah Walking with the House of Israel 208
    Third Prophecy of Jeremiah: the Same Words in Jeremiah and the Qur’an for the Fate of the Israelites 209
    Fourth Prophecy of Jeremiah: the Expulsion of Banu Nadir from Madina..... 210 210
    Jeremiah’s Fifth Prophecy: the Israelites’ Ignorance of the Divine Law and the False Pen of Scribes 214
    Jeremiah’s Sixth Prophecy: a Righteous Branch to David, Which Shall Reign Wisely, Justly, and Rightly 217
    How Muslims Have Dealt with the Followers of Other Religions under Their Government 219
    The Happiest Years of the Jews After David and Solomon 220
    Prophecies of Ezekiel 220
    The Second David, with Whom God Will Make a Covenant of Peace 221
    Ezekiel’s Second, Important Prophecy: Lost Tribes of Israel 224
    The Revival of the Jews and Jerusalem 226
    Ten Lost Tribes of Israel 227
    Partial Fulfillment of the Prophecy 228
    The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel in the Bible and the Basic Mission of Jesus 229
    Afghans, Kashmiris and the Tajiks of Badakhshan 231
    The Kush Tribe 237
    Influences of the Jewish Immigration 238
    Conclusion 239
    Daniel’s Prophecies 240
    Daniel’s First Prophecy: the Dream of Nebuchadnezzar II 241
    The Four Kingdoms to Be Established and Destroyed One after the Other..... 242 242
    The Heavenly Stone Which Will Utterly Destroy the Great Image of Gold, Silver, Brass, Iron and Clay, Which Represents Idolatry 243
    Daniel’s Second Prophecy: Daniel’s Strange Vision 244
    Four Beasts: Four Successive Ancient Kingdoms 246
    The Everlasting Kingdom of the Saints of the Most High 247
    Hosea’s Prophecy 248
    The Return to God of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel after Centuries of Idolatry and Engagement in Vices 248
    Joel’s Prophecy 249
    Israel’s Repentance and Reformation after a Locust Plague and Severe Drought 250
    The Valley of Jehoshaphat 252
    Obadiah’s Prophecy 253
    Saviors Will Come and the Kingdom Shall Be the Lord’s 253
    Prophet Jonah’s Significant Message 254
    Jonah’s Sign Fulfilled in the Person of the Holy Prophet 255
    Micah’s Prophecy 257
    Nations Will Go to God’s Mountain and House 257
    Bethlehem Ephrathah and the Prophet Therein to Appear 258
    Conclusions Drawn from the Prophecy of Micah 262
    Nahum’s Prophecy 264
    The Tragic End of Abu Lahab and Those Like Him 264
    How God Punishes the Rebellious 265
    The Battle of Badr 267
    Habakkuk’s Prophecy 269
    A New Revelation in Arabia through Which the Earth and Heavens Will Be Filled with Praise of God 269
    “The Righteous Shall Live by His Faith” 270
    The Great Work of God: Salvation of Humanity 272
    The Holy One to Come from Paran 272
    A New Law of Life to the World from Madina 274
    More Information about the Prophet and the Spread of Islam 274
    Zephaniah’s True Vision 275
    The Punishment to Be Followed by God’s Kingdom 276
    God’s Turning to Nations with a Book with a Pure Tongue 277
    Other Signs in Zephaniah’s Prophecy for the Holy Prophet 277
    Haggai’s Prophecy 278
    The Greatest Desire of All Nations to Be Realized after Great Social, Political and Religious Revolutions 278
    The House to Be Greater in Glory than the (First) Temple 280
    The ‘Himda’ (Ahmad) of All Nations 280
    Zechariah’s Significant Prophecies 281
    Christians’ Commentary upon the Prophecies 282
    Zechariah’s Prophesies Have Generally Been Fulfilled 283
    The Branch Who Shall Be a Priest upon His Throne 284
    The Humblest Servant in His Kingdom Riding Camels or Colts, and Whose Kingdom, Spreading from Sea to Sea, Brought Peace to the Nations, Including the Jews 285
    Eradication of Idolatry and Utter Rejection of False Prophets 286
    The Poor, the Despised, Even the Feeblest Will Resemble David 286
    Malachi’s Prophecy 287
    The Messenger to Prepare the Way of the Lord, and to Refine and Purify, and to Burn as a Furnace 287
    The Messenger of Covenant 289
    The Messenger Who Will Suddenly Come to His Temple 290
    Prophet Muhammad in the New Testament 291
    Prophet Muhammad as Peacemaker and the Praised and Sought One 292
    and the Laces of Whose Shoes John the Baptist and Jesus Did Not See Themselves Worthy to Untie and Loose 294
    The Relationship between John and Jesus in the Gospels 294
    John the Baptist’s Prediction of the Last Prophet 295
    “That Prophet” Whom the Jews Were Expecting Besides Elijah and the Messiah 297
    Bible Commentators Contradict Themselves and the Bible in Identifying “That Prophet” 298
    “That Prophet” or the Prophet Like Moses 299
    Muhammad, the Son of David to Inherit His Throne 300
    The Name Jesus 300
    Jesus and the Messiah Expected by the Jews 301
    The Meaning of the Expression of “Son of God” 303
    Is Jesus “Son of David”? 304
    The Prophecy Was Fulfilled in Prophet Muhammad 306
    The Kingdom of God or Heaven 308
    “Mulk” and “Malakut” in the Qur’an 308
    “The Kingdom of God” as Understood by Amillenarians and Premillenarianst 309
    Jewish Understanding of the Concept of the “Kingdom of God” 310
    “The Kingdom of God” or “Heaven” in the New Testament 311
    In Whom Have the Signs of the Kingdom of God Been Fulfilled? 312
    The Messianic “Son of Man” 316
    The Use of the Term in the Bible 317
    “Son of Man” in the Qur’an 319
    Daniel’s “Son of Man” 320
    The Signs of the “Messianic” Son of Man and Prophet Muhammad 321
    Islam, with Its Law, Is a ‘Judgment of Peace’ 323
    The “Son of Man” Establishes the Kingdom of Peace 323
    The “Son of Man” Saves That Which Was Lost 324
    The “Son of Man” Is Lord of the Sabbath 324
    The Prophet Consumed with Divine Unity and God’s House 326
    The Prophet Consumed with Establishing the Basic Belief of Divine Unity and Pure Worship of God 328
    How the Holy Prophet Was Concerned with People’s Guidance 329
    The Acceptable Year of God: the Conquest of Makka 332
    The Elements of the Prophecy Jesus Quotes from Isaiah, and Prophet Muhammad 333
    The Tenants Who Will Give the Lord the Fruits of His Vine 335
    The Last Stone of the Edifice of Prophethood 338
    The Nation Producing the Fruits of God’s Kingdom 340
    The Mustard Seed to Grow into an Elaborate Tree 341
    The Good Samaritan Who Bounds up Wounds 343
    The True Savior of the Jews 345
    The One Who Will Come at Midnight after Jesus 347
    Jesus Is a Clear Sign of Both the Last Time and the Prophet of the Last Time 348
    The Foolish Landowner and Practical Atheism 349
    The Foolish Scientist and Scientism 351
    The Lord of the House to Come back Suddenly 352
    Prophethood Given to the Sons of Ishmael after Jesus 354
    Good and Bad Figs, and the Fig Tree Never to Be Rooted Up 354
    Returning to the Religion of Abraham through the Holy Prophet 355
    The Promised and Awaited Paraclete 358
    The Meaning of ‘Spirit’ or What Spirit Is 359
    Paraclete Is a Masculine Human, Not a Spiritual Being, for Whom the Masculine Pronoun Is Used 361
    Paraclete Is a Prophet Like Jesus 362
    Paraclete Hears and Speaks, Not Inspires 363
    The Promised Paraclete Will Come after Jesus, and Does Not Exist before Him 364
    Paraclete Is an Independent Salvific Figure 365
    Paraclete Is One Who Will Guide into All Truth 366
    God’s Eternal Covenant with Abraham and Paraclete 368
    The Promised Paraclete Will Glorify Jesus and Bear Witness of Both Him and His Disciples 370
    The Coming Paraclete Will Convict the World in Respect of Sin, Righteousness and Judgment 371
    The Paraclete Will Be a Ruler to Judge Satan and His Followers 372
    The Coming Paraclete Will Remain with Them Forever 373
    The Coming Paraclete Will Declare the Things That Are to Come 373
    A Significant Consideration about the Word "Paraclete" 374
    Addendum 1: Prophet Jesus and Virgin Mary in the Qur’an 377
    Addendum 2: The Messianic Mission Attributed to Jesus Christ toward the End of Time 384
    The Universal and Inclusive Character of Islam 385
    The Return of Jesus in Prophet Muhammad’s Sayings 386
    The Main Aspects of Jesus’ Messengership 386
    Prophet Muhammad in the Zoroastrian Scriptures 390
    Introduction 390
    A Muslim Is a True Follower of All the Prophets 391
    Zoroastrianism and the Zoroastrian Scriptures 391
    The Cult of Fire in Zoroastrianism 394
    The Scriptures of Zoroastrianism 396
    Prophet Muhammad in the Zoroastrian Scriptures 397
    The Powerful Restoration of the World and Extinguishment of the Fire in the Temples of the Zoroastrians 397
    The Final Saoshyant or Astvat-Ereta and His Pious Companions 398
    The Victory in the Battle of Badr 402
    The Prophet’s Victory against All Kinds of Evil or Evil-Doers from amongst Humankind and Jinn 403
    The Sacred Well of Zamzam 404
    A Description of the Holy Prophet as a Prophet and a Ruler 406
    The Miraculous Protection of the Holy Prophet 408
    Good News of the Advent of Prophet Muhammad in Dasatir 410
    Prophet Muhammad in the Buddhist Scriptures 413
    Buddha, Buddhism and the Buddhist Scriptures 413
    Siddhartha Gautama Buddha 413
    Buddhist Scriptures 415
    Basic Teachings of Buddhism 416
    Prophet Muhammad in the Buddhist Scriptures 419
    Maitreya: the Last and Greatest Promised “Buddha” 419
    Prophecies about Maitreya 422
    Maitreya Is Most Clearly Prophet Muhammad 425
    Prophet Muhammad in the Hindu Scriptures 437
    Hinduism and the Hindu Scriptures 437
    Sacred Texts of Hinduism 439
    Prophet Muhammad in the Hindu Scriptures 442
    Mahamad (Muhammad): the Pride of Humankind 442
    Mahamad Busy in Bringing the Misguided to the Right Path, and the Musalmans Purified through Holy Struggle in God’s Cause 444
    Allah and Muhammad in Allopanishad 446
    Narashangsa: the Praised Man 450
    Qualities of Narashangsa in the Rig Veda 450
    Narashangsa in the Atharva Veda 453
    Mantra One: the Praiseworthy, Emigrant, and One Who Promotes Peace 454
    Sushravah and His Closest Companions: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and ‘Ali 455
    Mantra Two: the Camel-Riding Prophet, Who Made an Ascension 457
    The Third Mantra: the Companions of the Promised Prophet 460
    Mamah(a) with Ten Thousand Followers 462
    Mantra Four: the Prophet’s Adoration of God and Communication of the Truth 464
    Mantra Five: Warriors Who Go to War with Prayers 466
    Mantra Six: the Prophet Asked to Preach the Teachings of the Qur’an 467
    Mantras Seven to Ten: Parikshit and the Peace, Prosperity, and Security Coming with Him 468
    Mantra Eleven: the Rishi Ordered to Praise God and Preach His Commands 473
    Mantra Twelve: the Prosperity Coming with the Prophet and His Unparalleled Munificence 474
    Mantras Thirteen and Fourteen: Prayer for the Holy Prophet and His Companions 475
    The Description of the Ka‘ba in the Atharva Veda 476
    The Ka‘ba and Makka as the Protected Seat of Angels and Holy Spirits 478
    The Building Whose Sides Are Not of the Same Length and around Which God Is Visible and Saturated with Spiritual Bliss 479
    The Ka‘ba, Which Has Nine Gates 480
    Ten Thousand Enemy Soldiers: the Battle of the Trench or Allies 480
    The Prophet Fights Another Battle: Marching upon Banu Qurayza after the Battle of Allies 484
    The Conquest of Makka and the Battle of Hunayn 486
    Ahmad, the Sun from Which Other Prophets Received Light 488
    The Holy Prophet Muhammad’s Advent Foretold in the Gayatri Mantra, the Mother of the Vedas 491
    The Messenger Who Did Not Drink from His Mother’s Milk 493
    The Final Avatar: Kalki Avatar 494
    Who Is an Avatar? 494
    The Time and Conditions in Which the Final Avatar Will Appear 498
    The Place and Date of Kalki Avatar’s Birth and His Family 502
    The Special Qualities of Kalki Avatar 504
    Actions of Kalki Avatar 505
    Some Other Attributes of Kalki Avatar 517
    Description of His Companions 519

    Chapter 6: The Prophet of the Most Sublime Character 523

    The Prophet of Universal Mercy 525
    The Mildness and Forbearance of the Holy Prophet 530
    The Holy Prophet’s Generosity 536
    The Modesty of the Holy Prophet 539
    Index 543

    Review The Prophet promised in World Scriptures is a rare work eliciting some deep-rooted devotion of Ali Unal amd Harun Gultekin. Unal and Gultekin plead that Islam is the religion of peace, can face global challenges and resolve the psychic dilemmas of multiform narcissism of the post-modern societies. God Almighty sent Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings upon him) to guide humans to the path of success. Unal and Gultekin argue that God’s choice is verified not only by the Quran but also in the scriptures of the major religions. The Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) is a sign of hope and human salvation in these religious texts. This volume explores this spiritual zeal in great depth by examining the signs and symbols used in these texts. The Prophet of Islam is a practical example of a perfect human being. His life and message answers these questions:

    “Who am I? Where did I come from? What is my final destination? What is the purpose of life? What does our dying mean? Is death absolute non-existence or only a door to a new, eternal life?” (p.39). After stating that “Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings upon him) occupies a position in which the diverse religions of the world find a common converging point” (p.XXI), we are introduced to the entire tradition of the revealed religions and others and their scriptures acknowledging the advent of this “world teacher.” Before dwelling in detail about the main theme, we learn briefly how the Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) had to be sent as a warning to a people who lived in an age of Jahliya or ignorance. The life of the Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) before and after the Prophet Hood is briefly touched upon. The Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) is to illuminate the path of righteousness to his people and the whole of humanity, to guide people to learn the Divine Laws, be a practical example of these laws by being truthful, trustworthy and sincere.

    Unal and Gultekin endorse that despite alteration in the Old Testament, the text put together by Ezra and his friends is more reliable. The phrase “he will crush your head” (Genesis 3:15) is interpreted as the task assigned to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings upon him) with regard to the crushing of the “Satan’s head.” In the “Farewell Pilgrimage” the Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) had said, “O people! This day Satan has lost all hope of re-establishing his worship in the land of yours” (p.69). Similarly, the phrase “The Lord’s coming with ten thousands of his holy men” - a prophesy made by Prophet Idris, is concerned with the strength of numbers (approximately ten thousand) of the soldiers who accompanied Prophet Mohammad (peace and blessings upon him) at the time of the conquest of Makkah (p.71). Regarding Prophet Noah’s prognostication (p.72-3), we learn that the age of such universal floods is over after the placement of the “bow in the clouds” by the Prophet of Islam. The Quran and Sunnah are the Islamic Ark of Noah. Connected to the same theme of the Deluge and Noah’s Ark is the phrase “the Ship and its Master” used by the Rig Veda, which Unal and Gultekin interpret as applying to the Prophet of Islam. “With a hundred oars” (Rig Veda) when the sun mounts a ship is observed in the light of the total number of the Surahs of the Quran. The Sanskrit word shat in the Veda “is not always used exactly for a hundred, but for around a hundred. “The ship with a hundred oars” state Unal and Gultekin “stands for the Quran which has a few more than a hundred chapters” (p.75). Dwelling upon another cross-religious theme, we learn that just as Prophet Noah was known in India and the rest of the world, Prophet Abraham is actually Brahma the father of mankind. We learn a great deal about this in the book. We also learn how the prayer of Abraham and Ishmael was answered in the shape of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings upon him) as the latter had said: “I am the answer of the prayer of my father Abraham” (Ibn Hisham, Ibid., 1:175; al-Tabari, ibid., 2: 128).

    The Arab race, comments Roberts Dummelow, is the realization of the promise made to Hagar in the Bible. Prophet Abraham was a hundred years old when Prophet Isaac was born. Prophet Ishmael was fourteen then and was the only son of Abraham whom God commanded to sacrifice him by testing Abraham’s trustworthiness and patience. According to Genesis, God had promised Abraham that his progeny shall flourish “as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore” (p.81). This statement applies to the descendants of Prophet Ishmael to whose lineage the Prophet of Islam belongs, rather than Prophet Isaac’s. Prophet Jesus was born in the family tree of Prophet Isaac. Jesus “had no offspring and Isaac’s own offspring has been lost in the darkness of history…” (p.81).

    The section “Prophet Moses’ Prophecies” (p.88-94) may be summed up by referring to the phrase “The Lord’s shining forth from mount Paran” (Deuteronomy, 33:2). “Mount Paran” signifies the hilly Makkah unto which Prophet Abraham and Hagar had journeyed. The phrase “that Prophet” (John, 1:19-22) as part of the Children of Israel or the lineage of Prophet Moses, relates to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings upon him) as belonging to Ishmael’s Patriarchal pedigree. Similarly, the line “At his right hand was a fiery law for them” (Deuteronomy, 33:2) signifies the sacred law of Shariah introduced by the Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) according to the Quran. The Psalms (118:26) line “The Prophet who comes in the name of the Lord” is literal version of the Surah al-Alaq’s verse “Read in the name of your Lord, Who has created” (96:1). The introductory line that appears before each of the Surahs of the Quran also repeats the phrase from the Psalms, “In the name of God, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate.” Furthermore, Prophet David predicted about Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings upon him) by calling the latter as the “Promised one”, who shall protect the poor and the needy by annihilating oppression. He will be the beacon of light for the righteous and shall establish peace on earth (Psalms 73:4-1). Prophet David also mentions Makkah as “Baca” in his prayer, and, says that those who pray in “the Lord’s House” are the blessed ones (Psalms, 84:4-7). Similarly, Prophet Solomon foretold that God shall send the last Prophet “Mahamaddim” to humanity to establish Monotheism (Song of Solomon, 5:16). The suffix “im” stands for “respect” as in “Elohim” (for God). The promised Prophet shall be from Solomon’s cousins or the Ishmaelites in a neighbouring country or Arabia. Prophet al-Yasa’a (the Quran) and Isa’iah (Bible) attributes the “promised one” to be a “wonderful counsellor, mighty master, everlasting father, prince of peace” (Isa’iah, 9:1-7). The promised one shall save his people from ignorance or “the valley of the shadow of death” (p.122) as he is “a rod out of the stem of Jesse” (Isa’iah, 11:1-9). “Jesse” is a contraction of Ishmael. God, furthermore, will have blessed the promised one with might and wisdom and he shall be a commander like Prophet David. He shall settle in Medina “In the thickest in Arabia you will lodge, O Caravans of Dedanites” (21: 13-17). Dedan was the grandson of Prophet Noah and the caravans of Dedanites are the Banu Aws and Banu Khazraj, who had migrated to Medina from Yemen to live in Arabia Felix. The “inhabitants of the land of Tema” (p.137) are the descendants of the ninth son of Ishmael, Tema. The land they finally settle in is also known by the same name, that is, “the land of tema”, or the land of Banu Aws and Khazraj. The sub clauses “to him that was thirsty they brought water….and the fugitives with their bread” direct attention to the same tribes earning the title of al-Ansar for helping the Prophet and his Companions on their emigration into Medina. We also learn the mentioning of the Battle of Badr in which the major Chiefs of “the children of Kedar” shall be slayed, according to Isa’iah. This intimate survey covers the whole of the Old Testament with detailed comments on the presence of the promised one as acknowledged by the entire tree of Prophetology. The same method applies to the New Testament and the sacred scriptures of the Indic canon.

    According to Luke (2:14;10:24;12:49,51), the promised one is blessed by Jesus Christ as the peacemaker in Arabia. His name shall be “Ahmad” augured Jesus, and, he shall be “praiseworthy” and the “sought one.” John the Baptist prognosticated that the promised one shall be “mightier than him” (p.296). In the Gospel of Barnabas (chapter 44), Jesus is reported as saying about the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) that a Prophet mightier than him (Jesus) is about to appear in the world, after he is gone. The expression “son of God” attributed to Jesus is used as a metaphor, just as the Prophets before him were titled as “gods.” According to Luke, Jesus is quoted as “son of Joseph” due to the same family tree to which the two belonged besides “the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.” The scriptures at times also use the same titles for entire nations as “sons” or “children of God”, viz: “that the sons of God saw the daughters of men…” (Genesis, 6:24). Moreover, the promised one, according to the Psalms, shall flourish like a thick tree laden with fruit. The promised one is also the “last stone of the edifice of Prophethood” (p.338- see the references from the Mark, Luke and other scriptures). John (15:25-27;16:14) coins the name of the promised Prophet as “the promised Paraclete”, who, after having established peace in the land, shall also glorify Jesus and his disciples.

    Ulan and Gultekin also touch upon the theme of Virgin Mary and Jesus Christ as mentioned in the Quran. The “Addendun 2” elaborates the “Messianic” doctrine attached to the life of Jesus. The “Second Coming” of Jesus shall follow the course of the sweet Will of God. Yet, this will happen when “the children will not be dutiful to their parents, the rights of women will be violated, and chastity will not be given its due importance,” etc.

    The experience of Mi’raj manifests the spiritual sublimity of the Prophet (peace and blessings upon him). The Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) was escorted by the angels to the most sublime presence of God. On his return, he establishes the Kingdom of God on earth, based upon the rules and values as revealed in the Quran. Besides these predictions from the New Testament and others, the living rulers such as the Negus, the king of Abyssinia and Heraclius, the emperor of Byzantium also showed their heart-felt respect to the Prophet (peace and blessings upon him).

    The promised one is also commemorated in the Zoroastrian scriptures as “the saviour of the world” or Saoshyant. A friend of Ahura Mazda, this meritorious one shall vanquish evil (druj) and Satan (Angra Mainyu) and “make the world perfect and immortal” (p.401). His Companions shall support him in the “fiend-smiting.” Ulan and Gultekin also interpret one of the incidents from Zamyad Yasht (19:89-90) as assigned to the victory of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr, and, the way the hand of God protected the Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) and his fugitive Companions at the time of emigration to Medina.

    Parallel to Saoshyant, Maitreya in the Buddhist scripture suggests the qualities of the promised Prophet. Maitreya is the bodhisattra or the compassionate one who “devotes all his life to the ultimate welfare of all other beings” (p.425).

    Unal and Gultekin, finally, concentrate on the evidence available on the promised one in the Hindu scriptures and quote from Bhavshya Purana as stating that “a malechha, a spiritual teacher, will appear with his companions. His name will be Mahamad. Raja (Bhoj) after giving the Mahadev Arab (of Angelic disposition) a bath in the Panchgayva and the Ganges water offered him the presents of his sincere devotion… (111:3, 3, 5-6, quoted by Vidyarthi, 3:1105).” The washing of the heart of the Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) with the water of Zamzam by the two angels is well-known to the Muslims in the context of Mi’raj. There are many more mantras about the promised one in the Hindu scriptures. We learn some amazing things about the promised one in this section. The last few pages of this promising research-based project recapitulate the gloriously merciful character of the last, but the greatest of all, the Prophets, Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings upon him.

    Dr Zulfiqar Ali, UK

    Midwest Book Review,
    Reviewer's Bookwatch: September 2014,
    http://www.midwestbookreview.com/rbw/sep_14.htm#zulfiqar
    ABOUT AUTHOR
    Ali Unal
    Ali Unal

    Ali Unal is a renowned scholar and a prolific translator of works with an Islamic theme into English. He has written for many periodicals and is a columnist for Zaman daily newspaper. His published books include Living in the Shade of Islam, Islamic Perspectives on Science, Islam Addresses Contemporary Issues, The Resurrection and the Afterlife, and The Qur’an with Annotated Interpretation in Modern English.